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ATMega16 - 8-Bit AVR Microcontroller

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ATMEGA16 Pin Configuration

PIN NO.

PIN NAME

DESCRIPTION

ALTERNATE FUNCTION

1

PB0(XCK/T0)

Pin 0 of  PORTB

T0( Timer0 External Counter Input)

XCK ( USART External Clock I/O)

2

PB1(T1)

Pin 1 of  PORTB

T1(Timer1 External Counter Input)

3

PB2(INT2/AIN0)

Pin 2 of  PORTB

AIN0(Internal Analog Comparator Positive Input)

 

INT2( External Interrupt 2 Input)

4

PB3(OC0/AIN1)

Pin 3 of  PORTB

AIN1(Internal Analog Comparator Negative Input)

 

OC0 (Timer0 Output Compare Match Output) or  PWM output

 

5

PB4(SS )

Pin 4 of  PORTB

SS (SPI Slave Select Input).  This pin is low when controller acts as slave.

 

[Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) for programming]

6

PB5(MOSI)

Pin 5 of  PORTB

MOSI (Master Output Slave Input). When controller acts as slave, the data is received by this pin.

[Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) for programming]

7

PB6(MISO)

Pin 6 of  PORTB

MISO (Master Input Slave Output). When controller acts as slave, the data is sent to master through this pin.

 

 [Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) for programming]

8

PB7(SCK)

Pin 7 of  PORTB

SCK (SPI Bus Serial Clock). This is the clock shared between this controller and other system for accurate data transfer.

[Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) for programming]

9

RESET 

Reset Pin (Active Low Reset)

 

10

VCC

Connected to +5V

 

11

GND

Connected to GROUND

 

12

XTAL2

Connected to Crystal Oscillator

 

13

XTAL1

Connected to Crystal Oscillator

 

14

PD0(RXD)

Pin 0 of  PORTD

RXD (USART Input Pin)

 

[USART Serial Communication Interface

can be used for programming]

15

PD1(TXD)

Pin 1 of  PORTD

TXD (USART Output Pin)

 

[USART Serial Communication Interface

can be used for programming]

16

PD2(INT0)

Pin 2 of  PORTD

External Interrupt INT0

17

PD3(INT1)

Pin 3 of  PORTD

External Interrupt INT1

18

PD4(OC1B)

Pin 4 of  PORTD

OC1B (Timer Output Compare Match Output) or  PWM output

19

PD5(OC1A)

Pin 5 of  PORTD

OC1A (Timer Output Compare Match Output) or  PWM output

20

PD6(ICP)

Pin 6 of  PORTD

Timer/Counter1 Input Capture Pin

21

PD7 (OC2)

Pin 7 of  PORTD

Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Match Output

22

PC0 (SCL)

Pin 0 of  PORTC

TWI Interface

23

PC1 (SDA)

Pin 1 of  PORTC

TWI Interface

24

PC2 (TCK)

Pin 2 of  PORTC

JTAG Interface

25

PC3 (TMS)

Pin 3 of  PORTC

JTAG Interface

26

PC4 (TDO)

Pin 4 of  PORTC

JTAG Interface

27

PC5 (TDI)

Pin 5 of  PORTC

JTAG Interface

28

PC6 (TOSC1)

Pin 6 of  PORTC

Timer Oscillator Pin 1

29

PC7 (TOSC2)

Pin 7 of  PORTC

Timer Oscillator Pin 2

30

AVcc

Vcc for Internal ADC  Converter

 

31

GND

GROUND

 

32

AREF

Analog Reference Pin for ADC

 

33

PA7 (ADC7)

Pin 7 of  PORTA

ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) Channel 7

34

PA6 (ADC6)

Pin 6 of  PORTA

ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) Channel 6

35

PA5 (ADC5)

Pin 5 of  PORTA

ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) Channel 5

36

PA4 (ADC4)

Pin 4 of  PORTA

ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) Channel 4

37

PA3 (ADC3)

Pin 3 of  PORTA

ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) Channel 3

38

PA2 (ADC2)

Pin 2 of  PORTA

ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) Channel 2

39

PA1 (ADC1)

Pin 1 of  PORTA

ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) Channel 1

40

PA0 (ADC0)

Pin 0 of  PORTA

ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) Channel 0

 

ATMEGA16 Features

ATMEGA16 – Simplified Features

CPU

8-bit AVR

Number of Pins

40

Operating Voltage

For ATMEGA16:+4.5 to +5.5 V (+5.5V being absolute maximum)

For ATMEGA16L:+2.7 to 5.5V(+5.5V being absolute maximum)

Number of Input/output pins

32

Communication Interface

JTAG Interface(24,25,26,27 PINS)[Can be used for programming this controller]

SPI Serial Interface(5,6,7,8 PINS) [Can be used for programming this controller]

Programmable Serial USART(14,15 PINS) [Can be used for programming this controller]

Two-wire Serial Interface(22,23 PINS)[Can be used to connect peripheral devices like sensors and servos]

ADC Module

8 channels , 10-bit resolution ADC

Timer Module

Two 8-bit counters, One 16-bit counter [Total three]

Analog Comparators

1

DAC Module

Nil

PWM channels

4

External Oscillator

0-8MHz for ATMEGA16L

0-16MHz for ATMEGA16

Internal Oscillator

0-8MHz  Calibrated Internal Oscillator

Program Memory Type

Flash

Program Memory

16Kbytes[10000 write/erase cycles]

CPU Speed

16 MIPS

RAM Bytes

1KBytes

Data EEPROM

512 Bytes

Watchdog Timer

Yes

Power Save Modes

Six Modes[Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, Standby and Extended Standby]

Operating Temperature

-55°C to +125°C(+125 being absolute maximum, -55 being absolute minimum)

   

 

ATMEGA16 Electrical Characteristics

  • Maximum voltage on any pin except RESET : -0.5V to ( Vcc + 0.5)V
  • Maximum voltage on RESET pin : -0.5V to +13.0V
  • Maximum DC current allowed through any I/O pin : 40mA
  • Maximum DC current through Vcc and GND pins: 200mA
  • Storage temperature:-65ºC to +150ºC

 

ATMEGA16 Replacements

ATMEGA32, ATMEGA8535

 

ATMEGA16 Alternatives

ATMEGA8, ATMEGA328p

 

Where to use ATMEGA16

ATMEGA16 microcontroller is one of the popular controllers in AVR series. With its features and purchase cost it became one of favorite controller for both hobbyists and engineers. ATMEGA16 programming is similar to any other AVR controller.  It is particularly a clone to ATMEGA32 except for the memory. Although it has only half the memory of ATMEGA32, it is still more than enough to satisfy most EMBEDDED SYSTEMS.

 

ATMEGA16 has also sleep modes. The modes can be triggered at desired times to save power. With various sleep modes on board ATMEGA16 can work on MOBILE EMBEDDED SYSTEMS.

 

ATMEGA16 has 32 programmable Input/output pins, with them ATMEGA16 can interface many peripherals easily.

 

ATMEGA16 has also programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator. With this Watchdog timer to reset under error the controller can be used on applications where human interference in minimal. 

 

How to Use ATMEGA16 Microcontroller

As mentioned earlier ATMEGA16 is similar to any other microcontroller and in particular ATMEGA32. It basically can perform any function that is performed by ATMEGA32. Similar to them it is not Plug and Play digital ICs. For working of ATMEGA16, first we need to save the program HEX code in ATMEGA16 FLASH MEMORY. After executing this code ATMEGA16 creates the desired response.

Entire process of using an ATMEGA16 goes like this:

  1. List the functions to be executed by ATMEGA16 in a paper.
  2. Next download program developing application (called IDE) for AVR controllers

 (Usually Atmel Studio 6.2 for Windows7,

 Atmel Studio 7 for Windows10 [ http://www.microchip.com/avr-support/avr-and-sam-downloads-archive ])

  1. Write the functions in ‘C’ language in IDE.
  2. After writing the program compile it in IDE. This eliminates errors.
  3. Make IDE application to generate HEX file for the written program after compiling.
  4. Choose the programming device (usually SPI programmer made for AVR controllers) which establishes communication between your Personal Computer and ATMEGA16.
  5. Run the HEX file burning software which is given for the chosen programming device.
  6. Choose the appropriate program HEX file in the programmer software.
  7. Burn the HEX file (Which contains program in the form of HEX code) in ATMEGA16 flash memory using this program.

Disconnect the programmer, connect the appropriate peripherals for the controller and power the system. With this ATMEGA16 executes the program and provides the response written in the saved program.

 

Applications

There are many of applications for ATMEGA16 microcontrollers.

  • Hobbyists applications
  • Engineers design
  • Temperature control systems
  • Analog signal measuring and manipulations.
  • Embedded systems like coffee machine, vending machine.
  • Motor control systems.
  • Digital signal processing.
  • Peripheral Interface system.

 

2D Model

ATMega16 Dimensions

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